Sunday, January 7, 2018

Integumentary System (Skin) - Definition, Anatomy, & Function

Basic Integumentary System (Skin) Anatomy and Functions


This article defines the integumentary system (Dermatology) and discusses its anatomy, physiology and medical terminology (combining forms, prefix and suffix), together with clinical aspects.

The Integumentary System is made up of the skin, hair, nails, and breasts.



Skin Anatomy

Anatomy The Skin - NCI Visuals Online

The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 Square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold.

Layers of Skin


Skin has three layers - epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous:

  1. The Epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
  2. The Dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
  3. The Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.



Epidermal layer of Skin


The epidermis, which is the epithelium of the skin, is the most superficial layer and it is the only part we ordinarily see. The epidermis is composed of squamous epithelial cells.The term squamous refers to the fact that these cells are scalelike and do not contain any blood vessels, nerve cells, or connective tissue. The deepest epidermal, layer, the stratum germinativum, is where new cells are made. The stratum germinativum is also known as the basal cell or basilar layer. As new cells are produced, they push the older cells toward the most superficial epidermal layer, the stratum corneum. When the older cells reach this top layer, they die and are filled with keratin, a fibrous protein substance that is relatively waterproof The amount of keratin in this layer varies from one part of the body to the other.

Layers of epidermis, skin, anatomy, Integumentary system



The soles and palms have relatively large amounts, which makes them tougher than other parts of the skin. Special cells within the epidermis called melanocytes produce a substance called melanin, which is the black or dark-brown pigment that colors the skin. The more melanin in the skin, the darker its color. Dark areas such as moles have high concentrations of melanin. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet light, which is why darker-skinned people are less susceptible to sun damage than lighter-skinned people.

Dermal layer of Skin


Immediately beneath the epidermis is the dermis, or corium, a dense fibrous layer of connective tissue. This layer has a large number of blood and lymph vessels and nerve endings. The dermis is highly elastic and flexible to protect deeper tissues and is composed of two distinct layers. The papillary dermis is contiguous with the epidermis. The reticular dermis lies between the papillary dermis and the subcutaneous tissue.

Dermis, epidermis, and subcutaneous layer - Anatomy of the skin, Integumentary system



The skin has two types of glands. Sebaceous or oil glands produce an oily substance called sebum. These glands are found near hair follicles and discharge sebum into the hair follicles. The sebum helps make hair soft and flexible. Because sebum is acidic, it helps destroy bacteria on the skin's surface.Sudoriferous, or sweat, glands produce sweat. A special type of apocrine gland is responsible for creating earwax, or cerumen.

Subcutaneous layer of Skin


The deepest layer of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, contains connective tissue and specializes in creating fat or adipose tissue. The lipocytes (fat cells) in this layer are responsible for manufacturing and storing fat.



Hair and Nails


Both hair and nails are made of keratin. Hair occurs over the entire body except the palms and the soles. It is concentrated in the scalp, which contains about 100,000 hairs. A hair follicle is a group of cells forming a capacity from which the hair shaft develops. The part of the hair that protrudes from the skin is referred to hair shaft. The part of the hair embedded in the hair follicle is the hair root. Hair growth takes place in two phases. The first phase is the anagen(growth) phase, and the second is the telogen (resting) phase.

Nail anatomy, Integumentary system

Nails are made of hardened keratin and protect the ends of the fingers and toes from injury. The lunula is the arch-shaped white area at the base of the nail bed. This is the area where nail growth takes place.

Degree of Burns


A Burn is any injury caused by heat. Burns are classified by degree of severity. If 70% or more of the body surface is covered with burns. death usually occurs because of the large amounts of bodily fluids that are lost. The rule of nine is used to calculate the proportion of total burn surface area in adults. Note that the values in the figure total 99& and 1% for genitalia.

Rule of nine, degree of skin, Integumentary system anatomy




The degrees of Burns:

  • First degree Burn — A burn of the epidermis
  • Second degree Burn — A burn of the dermis
  • Third degree Burn — A burn that affects the subcutaneous, muscles and bone

Burn Degree Diagram, Skin anatomy, Integumentary system

Combining forms of Skin



Combining Form

Meaning

Lip/o

Fat

Leuk/o

White

Cutane/o

Skin

Derm/o

Skin

Angi/o

Blood vessel

Sebec/o

Sebum

Adip/o

Fat

Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Section lll CPC Practice Questions - Compliance and Regulatory Part X


Section III CPC Practice Questions - Compliance and Regulatory Part X

This post is for Compliance and Regulatory CPC practice questions PART X.  Practice more and more these question, I will publish more question on coming days, Check my blog regularly for practice more question, Find the answers above the comment box, Share this post to your friends, if you have any clarification please comment i am ready to help you, Do well wish you all the best for your exam.

For All Part Click here - https://prabusha.blogspot.in/p/cpc-practise-questions.html



1. Medigap is a supplementary insurance for .-

a) Medicaid
b) WC
c) Medicare
d) HMO

2. What is COB?

a) It is a rule to determine which plan is primary for you, your spouse and your dependent children
b) The notice you receive from your insurance company after getting medical services from a doctor or hospital. It tells you what was billed, the payment amount approved by your insurance, the amount paid, and what you have to pay
c) It is a law that allows an employee leaving his/her employer to keep their current health insurance for up to 18 months
d) All of the above

3. COBRA .-

a) Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconsideration Act
b) Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
c) Concised Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
d) Consolidated Omnibus Budgeting Reconciliation Act

4. Which is incorrect for COBRA?

a) COBRA is a form of insurance
b) It is a law
c) It is an act passed in 1985
d) It states the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment

5. Paper Claims are

a) UB 04
b) ANSI
c) NSF
d) CMS 1500



6. DRG is __________.

a) Diagnosis Related Group
b) Drug Related Group
c) Drug Resource Group
d) Diagnosis Resource group

7. SSN number has ___________ digit. -

a) 7
b) 8
c) 9
d) 10

8. DSM IV is ___________.

a) Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
b) Diagnostic and Strategical manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
c) Diagnostic and Scientific manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
d) None of the above

9. ____________ codes are alphanumeric representatives of alternative medicine, nursing and other integrative health care interventions established by Foundation for Integrative Healthcare and an information product and consulting service firm called Alternative Link. -

a) Advanced Billing Contract Codes
b) HCPCS codes
c) CPT codes
d) None of the above

10. CMS delegates the daily operation of the Medicare program to

a) DHHS
b) PRO
c) RVU
d) MACs or FIs

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Sunday, December 31, 2017

Section lll CPC Practice Questions - Compliance and Regulatory Part IX


Section III CPC Practice Questions - Compliance and Regulatory Part IX

This post is for Compliance and Regulatory CPC practice questions PART IX.  Practice more and more these question, I will publish more question on coming days, Check my blog regularly for practice more question, Find the answers above the comment box, Share this post to your friends, if you have any clarification please comment i am ready to help you, Do well wish you all the best for your exam.

For All Part Click here - https://prabusha.blogspot.in/p/cpc-practise-questions.html



1. The personal and insurance information is collectively called as _______ information.

a) demographic
b) geographic
c) historic

2. This program was developed by CMS to promote national correct coding methods and to control inappropriate payment of Part B claims and hospital outpatient claims. -

a) NCCI
b) NFS
c) HIPAA
d) MA-PA

3. Which of the following is not considered fraud or abuse?

a) Lack of documentation of medical necessity for services reported
b) Accepting a $20 gift card from a shoe repair representative for each Medicare patient referred to his store
c) Referring patients to a radiology center in which your physician is a partner
d) Going to lunch with a pharmaceutical representative

4. This document is a notification in advance of services that Medicare probably will not pay for and the estimated cost to the patient. -

a) Wavier of Liability
b) Coordination of Benefits
c) Advanced Beneficiary Notice
d) UPIN

5. Which of the following place of service codes is reported for fracture care performed by an orthopedic physician in the ED?

a) 11
b) 15
c) 22
d) 23



6. Which of the following is an example of fraud?

a) Reporting the code for ultrasound guidance when used to perform a liver biopsy
b) Reporting a biopsy and excision performed on the same skin lesion during the same encounter
c) Failing to append modifier 26 on an X-ray that is performed and interpreted in the physician’s office
d) Reporting a lab panel with an additional lab test that is not included in the lab panel

7. Which of the following statements regarding advanced beneficiary notices (ABN) is TRUE?

a) ABN must specify only the CPT code that Medicare is expected to deny.
b) Generic ABN which states that a Medicare denial of payment is possible, or the internist is unaware whether Medicare will deny payment or not is acceptable
c) An ABN must be completed before delivery of items or services are provided
d) An ABN must be obtained from a patient even in a medical emergency when the services to be provided are not covered

8. Which of the following services are covered by Medicare Part B?

a) Inpatient chemotherapy
b) Minor surgery performed in a physician’s office
c) Routine dental care
d) Assisted living facility

9. Which modifier should be append to a CPT®, for which the provider had a patient sign an ABN form because there is a possibility the service may be denied because the patient’s diagnosis might not meet medical necessity for the covered service?

a) GJ
b) GA
c) GB
d) GY

10. What is the patient’s right when it involves making changes in the personal medical record?

a) Patient must work through an attorney to revise any portion of the personal medical information
b) They should be able to obtain copies of the medical record and request corrections of errors and mistakes
c) It is a violation of federal health care law to revise a patient medical record
d) Revision of the patient medical record depends solely on the facility’s compliance program policy

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